We present a novel initialization technique for the range-aided simultaneous localization and mapping (RA-SLAM) problem. In RA-SLAM we consider measurements of point-to-point distances in addition to measurements of rigid transformations to landmark or pose variables. Standard formulations of RA-SLAM approach the problem as non-convex optimization, which requires a good initialization to obtain quality results. The initialization technique proposed here relaxes the RA-SLAM problem to a convex problem which is then solved to determine an initialization for the original, non-convex problem. The relaxation is a second-order cone program (SOCP), which is derived from a quadratically constrained quadratic program (QCQP) formulation of the RA-SLAM problem. As a SOCP, the method is highly scalable. We call this relaxation Second-order COnic RElaxation for RA-SLAM (SCORE). To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first convex relaxation for RA-SLAM. We present real-world and simulated experiments which show SCORE initialization permits the efficient recovery of quality solutions for a variety of challenging single- and multi-robot RA-SLAM problems with thousands of poses and range measurements.